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November 17, 2010

NEW Ingersoll SMAX face milling line is here

The new SMAX face mill line by Ingersoll from General Cutting Tools, featuring the DPM434R (18 MM long) insert series is now available in both 0º and 45º lead angle versions. The 0º lead angle face mills generate true square shoulders to allow shoulder cutting and multiple Z-Axis depth milling passes. The 45º lead angle provides the necessary chip thinning, heat dissipation, and “softened” work piece entry to allow for higher chip loads and feed rates. The effective diameter range for both lead angles is from 3.00” – 12.00”. Ingersoll Cutting Tools from General Cutting Tools, Chicago IllinoisBoth lead angle series also bring the 18 MM SMAX insert family to the market for the first time. The insert part number series for these face mills is DPM434R… The insert dimensionally is .709” long X .300” thick, so it is well suited for heavy duty milling applications. The inserts for this family of cutters have positive geometry rake faces specifically developed to enhance chip formation and improve overall efficiency. Precision ground wiper flats on each of the inserts also provides the potential for superior surface finishes and dimensional repeatability. All of the 18 MM long inserts are used with an M5 thread insert screw to further add to the durability of the cutter family. Both cutter families are intended for roughing and one-cut applications. Standard cutters are available for RH spindle rotation.

The combination of true 0º lead angle and a wiper flat combined on the same insert design is a relatively new feature for Ingersoll’s Maxline family of face mills. The only other standard product line that combines these two features today in the Maxline family is the long edged VMAX inserts (NNE324R/L109). Due to their size, these VMAX inserts are not capable of the same axial depth of cut and feedrate as the new 18 MM SMAX inserts. Traditionally, this combination of true 0º lead angle combined with wiper flats has been featured in the Hi-Positive insert lines of Ingersoll and our competition. The new 4 edged 18 MM SMAX insert will allow our Maxline product to offer an alternative for shoulder milling applications where large 2 index Hi-Positive inserts have historically been used.

The 45º lead angle face mill provides potential for even higher chip thicknesses than the 0º lead angle series. As with any 45º face mill the effective chip thickness is only 71% (chip thinning) of the calculated chip thickness at the centerline of the tool. The potential for higher feedrates and reduced radial cutting pressures result. Lead angle face mills also improve heat dissipation and reduce the rate of tool wear, both by spreading the work of chip creation along a longer section of carbide when compared to 0º lead face mills at the same axial depth of cut. Another advantage of lead angle face mills is that entering and exiting of the work piece is “softened” because the entire leading edge of the insert does not contact the work piece simultaneously, as the top of the insert enters the cut first.


The figures below further explain some of the technical advantages of the new SMAX face mill product compared to older Maxline product; as well as much of our competition. For the purposes of this comparison we will compare the new SMAX 18 MM face milling insert to CDE style inserts that Ingersoll Cutting Tools originally developed, and are an industry standard today.

SMAX leading edge image

SMAX leading edge image

It is clear from the above figures that the wiper flat on the end of the SMAX 18 MM insert is a significant design enhancement for the Maxline product line. This new face mill series allows us to give our customers the combination of “tangential” insert orientation strength, true square shoulders when necessary, and the consistent finishes that result from a ground wiper flat on the inserts.

Ingersoll SMAX Pocket

Ingersoll SMAX Pocket

As with any indexable face mill designed specifically for heavy duty applications, the ability of the cutter body to adequately locate and hold the inserts in place is of primary concern. The design of the new SMAX insert allows our pocket to trap the insert in the correct location, and in a secure “dovetail” configuration that eliminates some of the holding stress on the insert screw. Most positive geometry inserts in the market today rely on holding the insert in a pocket with obtuse angles between the bottom of the insert and the rake face or flank face, depending on the insert design. A design with obtuse pocket angles allows a percentage of the cutting force on the leading edge of the insert, to be transferred to lifting the back of the insert out of the pocket. Typically, the insert screw has sufficient axial strength to deep the insert in the correct position, but over time the insert screw can become fatigued and may lead to failure. However, when using the SMAX pocket design, the higher the cutting force on the leading edge of the insert, the more force that is translated into holding the back of the insert down and into the locating corner where it belongs. To explain this SMAX pocket feature see the above figures. Also note that when using the SMAX insert design, the bottom of the insert that sits against the pocket is as wide as the top of the insert. This wide insert bottom provides better stability as a larger bearing surface between cutter and insert is achieved. Most positive geometry inserts in the market do not offer this feature, whether “tangential” (like the CDE example shown), or “conventional” (like a positive square SEKT or similar).

Both the 0º and the 45º lead angle cutter bodies feature differential radial spacing between insert pockets. This variable angle allows unequal insert spacing around the circumference of the cutter. The unequal spacing of insert pockets is helpful in dampening harmonic vibrations that can be otherwise present in the milling system.

Metric face mills using the SMAX 18 MM will also be available from our Ingersoll Germany division in the first half of 2005; for applications where metric diameters or adaptations are necessary.

Competitive Information:

There is significant competition for rough milling and one-cut applications. This type of face milling has been a strength for Ingersoll since the first tangential insert designs were used decades ago. Below is a table, divided by lead angle, showing some of our competitors’ cutter series. The table identifies only clear advantages the SMAX product family has over each competitor cutter and does not include an “X” where performance levels are similar and would typically be proven through customer testing.

In general, the primary performance advantages of the 18 MM SMAX face mill family is the size of the insert (large depths of cut), the surface finishes than can be created, and the free cutting molded rake face of the insert to reduce power consumption. Use these advantages to your benefit when promoting the SMAX family over our competition, and use the size and strength of the inserts to over power the feedrate capabilities of our competitors smaller inserts when testing on the customers’ spindle.

Carbide Grade Information:

The introduction of the 18 MM SMAX face mill line will include four standard insert grades.

Grades IN2015, IN2040, IN1530 and IN2005 will be the grade options for standard face mill inserts.

The intended applications are as follows: (Also refer to the Maxline catalog)

  • IN2015: Grey, Ductile, and Nodular Irons.
  • IN2040: Carbon Steels with good work piece rigidity. Dry only.
  • IN2005: Hi-Temp Alloys and Inconel
  • IN1530: Stainless Steel, Titanium, Carbon Steels with poor work piece rigidity. Wet or dry.

Hardware and Components:

All of the standard 18 MM SMAX inserts for the 0º and 45º lead angle face mills use insert screw SE03-70. This insert screw features a strong M5 thread and is tightened with a Torx-20 driver. Spare screwdrivers are available, and can be ordered as part number DS-0034. The insert screws should be torqued to 35-40 inch/lbs. There is no other hardware to replace or maintain in the standard face mills.


Maintenance of this face mill family is similar to any indexable face mill design. The fixed pocket design and tangential style of insert screw location minimize the necessary spare part inventory and related maintenance. For repeatable performance, the cutter pockets should be wiped clean during indexing, and the insert screws periodically replaced. Accurate projections of insert screw life are difficult to state, as insert screw life is dependent on consistently applying the recommended torque when indexing, as well as the degree of abuse that the milling system encounters during operation.

Operating Parameters:

The suggested operating parameters see the table below. The parameters are suggested starting ranges; and the optimum spindle RPM and feedrate will be dependent on the actual milling system rigidity, type of coolant used, depths of cut, etc. Remember to consider radial chip thinning when applying feedrates to the 45º lead face mills. Chip thinning will be compounded when considering applications with low percentages of radial engagement coupled with the 71% thinning factor of the 45º lead angle cutter series. Use these thinning factors to your advantage when feedrates of previously applied tooling have not been properly adjusted. As with most Maxline cutter designs, the 18MM SMAX face mills have not been designed for helical interpolation or ramping applications. A constant “Z plane” circular interpolation is acceptable.

Modified Standards & Specials:

We are anticipating high quantities of modified standard and special cutters to be quoted and manufactured using the 18 MM SMAX inserts. The product worksheets located in the back of the Maxline catalog have been included in that literature for the purposes of making things easier in communicating the necessary design parameters to our quotation department. Modified standards and specials using the 18 MM SMAX insert should be no smaller than 3.00” in diameter. To qualify as a modified standard, the cutter requested shall be no larger than 14.000” in diameter. Modified standards will also be fixed pocket face mills only. The diameter tolerance will be +/- .010” and the overall extension length tolerance will be +/- .005”. Some adjustments to these modified standard rules may be allowed, for example, a cutter with extension length tolerance +/- .003” is possible but the feature will carry additional delivery lead time and pricing adders that will be determined by the quotation department. The expected lead time for modified standard face mills below 5.00” in diameter should be 6 weeks. The expected lead time for modified standard face mills at 5.00”diameter and above should be 8 weeks. Approval drawings will add one week to the expected delivery. Not only are modified standard and special face mills available for quotation, but special inserts may also be quoted. We have the ability to grind radii or chamfers ranging from .031” to .125” on the 18 MM face mill inserts without effecting the number of insert indexes. The wiper flat on the end of the insert also allows the effective length of the tool to remain constant throughout the entire corner radius range of the insert.

April 2, 2010

Ingersoll Cutting Tools General Application Info – #2

The following information is directed toward indexable carbide tools but it can be applied to many other cutting tools, as well. It provides some basic guidelines designed to serve as a starting point for safe and reliable performance. Contact your Ingersoll Cutting Tools Company sales engineer or Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools for specific application assistance.

Feed Rates

Reduce feed rates by 50 percent when entering or exiting a cut.  Since fewer inserts are engaged in the work, pounding can occur. Reducing feed rates will reduce the shock of the interrupted cut and contribute to longer tool life.  When entering a corner during pocket milling, a larger portion of the cutter’s diameter is engaged. Power requirements and tool deflection increase. To compensate, program a reduced interpolated feed rate. Alternately, drill or plunge the corner prior to milling.

Cutter rotation.

Ingersoll Cutting Tools logoClimb cut whenever possible. Carbide is designed for climb milling and will not generally perform as well when conventional cutting. Conventional cutting may be employed on older machines to minimize backlash.  It can also extend tool life in sandy, scaly, or torch-cut surfaces as the cutting edge enters into cleaner, softer material.


Generally, harder materials should be machined at the lowest speed in Surface Feet per Minute (SFM) in the recommended range and softer materials at the higher recommended speed.
At 375 Brinell hardness, steel becomes very difficult to machine. Use the slowest recommended speed and the toughest carbide insert available. An edge hone may also be necessary to machine such hard material effectively.

Chip color

The color of the chips can also indicate how well your operation is performing. For example, carbon steel chips are blue. Stainless steel chips should be silver to straw colored, not blue. Titanium and nickel-based material chips should never change color.

General Cutting Tools is an authorized distributor for Ingersoll Cutting Tools.

Ingersoll Cutting Tools

We serve Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and ship to the entire US.  Contact us to find out how General Cutting Tools can give you big cost savings.

April 1, 2010

Ingersoll Cutting Tools General Application Info – #1

The following information is directed toward indexable carbide tools but it can be applied to many other cutting tools, as well. It provides some basic guidelines designed to serve as a starting point for safe and reliable performance. Contact your Ingersoll Cutting Tools Company sales engineer or Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools for specific application assistance.


Use the most rigid cutter possible.  This usually means the cutter with the largest diameter and shortest length. Use the best adaption possible. Integral tapers, such as a 50 V-flange, are better than straight shanks. When selecting straight shank tools, use a cutter with the largest diameter shank possible and a holder with the shortest length possible.
Ingersoll Cutting Tools logoEffective cutting edges. When calculating feed rate, use the effective number of inserts. In extended flute cutters, the effective number of inserts is not the number of rows. Use the effective number listed with the specifications for each series of tools.

Chip load

Carbide cutting tools have to take a “bite” to cut. Be sure to cut with an adequate chip load. Light chip loads can contribute to chatter, causing a cutter to “rub” instead of “bite.” This can also result in poor tool life. As a general rule, chip loads should not be less than .004″. Also, be sure to use Radial Chip Thinning Factors (RCTF) when calculating feed rates.
Chip recutting. Unlike HSS, carbide cutting tools cannot recut chips. Recutting chips will damage carbide. To evacuate chips, use air or coolant depending on the material being cut.


Generous amounts of coolant are required when low thermal conductivity, work hardening, and chip welding tendencies are evident.  Use coolant only when necessary. Some materials cut better dry. In some applications, coolant causes thermal cracking of inserts and poor tool life.

General Cutting Tools is an authorized distributor for Ingersoll Cutting Tools.

We serve Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and ship to the entire US.  Contact us to find out how General Cutting Tools can give you big cost savings.

March 12, 2010

Ingersoll SMax Micro End Mills & Face Mills

The introduction of Ingersoll Cutting Tool‘s Smax Micro family of cutting tools brings new application opportunities that were not possible with the existing Maxline insert sizes.  Smax Micro insert DFM213ROO1 provides the opportunity to use a 4 index insert combined with cut diameters as small as 1.00″ / 25MM. The smaller diameter range also couples well into the modular Top-On and Innofit adaption offering already established.  Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools is your one stop source for anything Ingersoll.  We ship to the entire United States and serve Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan.

The DFM213ROOI insert has an overall length of8.5MM and is recommended for axial depths of cut up to 5MM. 

One of the primary strengths of the Smax Micro design is the rigid steel core of the tool that remains after pockets and chip gullets are placed. The vast majority of indexable cutters in the diameter range of 1.00″ – 1.50″ use 2 index conventional type inserts. Conventional inserts require deeper pocketing and chip gullet areas which penetrate deeply into the tool core.

All tools in the Smax Micro family generate a 90° shoulder on the milled work piece. However, tools in this family are not recommended for ramping applications.

Advantages: Smax Micro offers several performance advantages over the competition:

1. Economy.
Most competitor tools you will replace have inserts with 2 cutting edges. Use the 4 sided DFM213ROOl insert to show customers a reduction in price per cutting edge.

2. Edge Life.
Cutting edge life is enhanced due to a unique rake face geometry and specially developed flank clearance angle that strengthens the insert when positioned for small diameter cuts.
Smax Micro has been introduced with the latest Super Gen P coating and cutting edge preparation to further enhance tool life.

3. Adaption.
Use the Top-On and Innofit adaptions to expand the use of those unique connections already enjoyed by some customers.

4. Feedrate.
Due to the tangential insert mounting of Smax Micro our tools can have a high quantity of inserts in a small diameter. A 1.00″ diameter end mill for example has 3 effective inserts.

Cutter Body Specifications and Hardware: All below tooling uses insert DFM213ROOl and insert screw SM30-082-00 (EDP 7070040). No further hardware is required. Insert screws are used with a TX-09 driver bit (part no. DS-0022; EDP 7009052) and should be torqued to 13-18 inch/lbs.

Maintenance: Maintenance is very similar to any indexable mil1ing cutter.  Cleanliness is essential for proper function and seating of the insert in the cutter pocket. Wiping, brushing, or compressed air blasts are alJ proven methods of cleaning the inserts and cutter pockets.
Insert screws should be replaced periodicaJ1y. The exact timing depends on what type of cutting is done and how consistently the screws are torqued to the correct specification. Jfthe countersink under the head ofthe screw looks worn or smeared, or the screw seems to have less holding power than when new, it is time to replace it.

Operating Guidelines: The suggested operating parameters are shown below. Consider that not all machines, fixtures, extensions, and work pieces are created equal. The operational ranges have been established as starting points to get you in the ballpark as you begin to detennine the optimized cutting parameters.

General Cutting Tools is an authorized Ingersoll Cutting Tools distributor.

Contact us for more information regarding any of the Ingersoll products or to receive a quotation on any standard or special needs.

Cutter Series Numbers

IS11V = Shank end mills, Top-On end caps, Innofit end caps
SJ5V = Fine pitch face mills
SJ6V = Medium pitch face mills


Grey cast and nodular iron, carbon and alloyed steels, hi-temp nickel alloys, titanium, stainless steel, tool steel, and aluminum

Diameter range

IS11V = 1.00″ – 1.50″
SJ5V = 1.50″ – 2.50″
SJ6V = 1.50″ – 2.50″


Weldon Shanks
Radial Flat Back Drive
Top-On 12 and 16MM
Innofit SK 40

Cutting edges per insert

4 (RH only)

Insert Grades

IN2005 (Introduction)
IN2030 and IN2015 (Future addition)

Insert comer radii



Positive Radial/Positive Axial

March 7, 2010

Total Machining Solutions for the Wind Power Industry

Wind Power is a green technology that will potentially change the World’s future energy requirements.  Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools along with Ingersoll are working at the forefront of this industry supporting wind turbine manufacturers with state-of-the-art cutting tools used to machine critical components.

Green Metalworking Solutions for the Wind Power Industry

Ingersoll contributes to the supply of green energy through its vast experience and specialized technology that enables wind turbine producers to efficiently and productively manufacture machined components for wind turbines.

Ingersoll delivers remarkable cutting tools and production solutions that are utilized in the manufacture of Tower Flanges, Main Shafts, Bearing Housings and Hubs as well as all the peripheral components.

Ingersoll provides total tooling solutions for heavy turning, milling and drilling to improve productivity and cut the cost of production with its machining specialists that will fulfill your machining demands.

General Cutting Tools is an authorized Ingersoll Cutting Tools distributor.

February 1, 2010

Ingersoll Pushing Tools Turns Into Savings

Pushing durable tools to their limits may be routine in turning standard metals, but Cutting Tools Chicago along with Ingersoll Cutting Tools, the practice works for improving efficiency when cutting high temperature alloys such as Inconels, Waspalloys, and others.  Gains in cutting tool edge life and faster operations save the company $70,000 per year in turning costs alone.

Jeff Hogya, former engineer and now Ingersoll Cutting Tools employee, contends “when turning tough to machine metal, shops shouldn’t be so dazzled by longer edge life that they forget to push material removal rates.

Machining profit comes more from saving time than preserving edges.”  This is why during an assignment at Slabe to improve turning efficiency on high temperature alloys; he chose five of the shop’s highest volume jobs to test several available cutters before selecting Ingersoll’s TaeguTec tooling.

The first test involved a 1.560 inch long cut turned a 175 sfm and 0.008 ipr in a Waspalloy stator part.  Edge life increased from two pieces to twelve, and raising the cutting rate to 185 sfm and 0.009 ipr only dropped edge life to 10 pieces.  This still produced a total five fold gain in edge life and a 12% increase in throughput.

On the second test piece, and Inconel 718 anti-rotation lug with a 2.180 inch long cut, turning at 165 sfm and 0.007 ipr boosted edge life from seven to 27 parts.  Cranking up to 175 sfm and 0.008 ipr generated a 13% increase in throughput with an edge life of 25 parts.

For another Waspalloy part with a 1.560 in long cut, roughing at 155 sfm and 0.0065 ipr with the Ingersoll cutter increased edge life from 15 to 24 pieces, and finishing at 165 sfm and 0.003 ipr upped life from 15 to 50.  Slabe couldn’t raise the cutting rate any higher for this part because it was a two spindle operation and the other spindle governed cycle time.

The fourth test part, an Inconel 718 turbine component with a 3.280 inch long cut, experienced increased edge life from six to ten pieces during roughing and 10 to 40 for finishing.  Finishing, originally ran at 165 sfm and 0.002 ipr, rose to 180 sfm and 0.003 ipr at a 0.008 inch depth of cut for a 60% gain in throughput — stemming from shorter cycles and fewer stops to index.

The fifth test job ran on a Citizen M 32 Swiss type machine and involved an Inconel 718 pin with a 0.625 inch long cut.  Edge life jumped from 10 to 45 pieces per edge, significant because the machine took five minutes to index.

January 11, 2010

Greenfield Tech Tip: Tap Drill Charts – The Right Information?

Greenfield along with Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools answers the question of whether tap drill charts have the right information.  While many factors contribute to tap failure, drill hole size is one that is often overlooked. When a problem arises, you may check the drill size being used against a tap/drill chart. If it appears correct, you might look for some other cause for the failure. But, are the tap/drill charts giving us the right information?

First, it is important to note that these tap/drill charts were developed in the 1950s and 60s. Drill diameters for the various thread sizes were selected based upon the “probable” hole size a standard bright jobber drill with a conventional point would produce. For example, a #7 (.201 “) diameter drill used for a 1/4-20 thread would generally produce a hole that was approximately .004″ larger than the drill’s diameter, or about .205”. Comparing that to the .196-.207 hole size required for that tap, the #7 drill produces a hole near the maximum limit, which is ideal. This results in an approximate 70% thread height. Removing most of the excess material with the drill significantly reduces the load on the tap without reducing the strength of the thread.

Today, things have changed significantly. There are many advanced drill designs, materials, points, coolant holes, and coatings. The accuracy of all drills has also improved dramatically due to enhanced drill manufacturing equipment and processes. Today’s advanced drills, powered by more accurate, high­speed, computer-controlled machine tools, are producing holes much closer to, or even the same as, the actual size of the drill.

Using modern drills, CNCs, and holders with conventional drill charts could result in tap breakage where none existed before. The #7 drill may no longer be the correct drill size for a 1/4-20 thread. It may be producing a hole much too small for successful tapping. While it is recommended that the tap/drill chart be used as a reference, or starting point, for selecting a drill diameter for the best hole size, the finished hole size is the most important factor. In the case of the 1/4-20 thread, any drill that produces a hole close to .207″ could be used. Even a #5 (.2055″) or a special diameter may be acceptable based upon the drill design and conditions.

Contact General Cutting Tools, your authorized Greenfield Tap and Die distributor for more information.

We ship to Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and the reset of the US.

December 24, 2009

Machining Plastics (Thermoplastics and Thermoset Plastics) from Cutting Tools Chicago

Plastics (Thermoplastics and Thermoset Plastics) technical information from Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools in Chicago, Illinois.  Plastic materials are derived mainly from petroleum products. The types, trade names, and compositions of the various modern plastics form a long list, with more being developed as required to meet specific design and application needs in industry.
A Thermoplastic is a plastic in which the finished molded part may be remelted for remolding. A thermoset plastic is a plastic in I i the chemical reaction cannot be reversed, thus allowing the part to be cast only once. Thermoplastics are extruded, injection molded, and cast in dies. Thermoset plastics usually are compression molded. Some of the thermoplastics are also formulated for thermoset applications, such as the urethanes. Table 4.56 lists the common trade names, suppliers, SAE symbols, and plastic “family” names for most plastics.

Common plastics and compositions. Listed here are some of the more prevalent plastics and compositions.

  • ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) Acetal (Delrin, Celcon)
  • Acetate (cellulose)
  • Acrylic (Lucite, Plexiglas)
  • Benelex
  • Epoxy, epoxy glass
  • Diallyl phthalate, Melamine
  • Mylar (polyester film)
  • Nylon
  • Phenol formaldehyde
  • Phenolic laminates
  • Polycarbonate (Lexan)
  • Polyester glass
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyimide
  • Polystyrene
  • Polysulfone
  • Polyurethane
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicones, Styrofoam (polystyrene)
  • Teflon (PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene), urea-formaldehyde

Common plastics and typical uses
Acetal (Delrin, Celcon). Properties: High modulus of elasticity, low coefficient of friction, excellent abrasion and impact resistance, low moisture absorption, excellent machinability, ablative. Typical uses: bearings, gears, antifriction parts, electrical components, washers, seals, insulators, and cams.

Acetate (Cellulose). Properties: Odorless, tasteless, nontoxic, grease resistant, high impact strength. Typical uses: badges, blister packaging, displays, optical covers, and book covers.

Acrylic (Plexiglas, Lucite). Properties: unusual optical clarity, high tensile strength, weatherability, good electrical properties, ablative. Typical uses: displays, signs, models, lenses, and electrical and electronic parts.

Benelex (Laminate). Properties: high compressive strength, machinable, resists corrosion (alkalis or acids), good electrical insulation, high flexural, shear, and tensile strength. Typical uses: work surfaces, electrical panels and switch gear, bus braces (low voltage only), and neutron shielding.

Diallyl phthalate, Melamine. Properties: high strength, chemical resistant, low water absorption, medium-high temperature use. Typical uses: terminal blocks and strips, dishware, automotive applications, and aerospace applications.

Epoxy glass. Porperties: high strength, high temperature applications, flame retardant, low coefficient of thermal expansion, low water absorption. Typical uses: high quality printed circuit boards, microwave stripline applications, VHF and UHF applications, electrical insulation, and service in temperature range of -400 to 500°F.

Mylar (polyester film, polyethylene terephthalate). Properties: High dielectric strength, chemical resistance, high mechanical strength, moisture resistant, temperature range 70 to 105°C, does not embrittle with ago. Typical uses: Electrical and industrial applications and graphic arts applications.

Nylon. Properties: Wear resistant, low friction, high tensile strength, excellent impact resistance, high fatigue resistance, easy machining, corrosion resistant, lightweight. Typical uses: Bearings, bushings, valve seats, washers, seals, cams, gears, guides, wheels, insulators, and wear parts.

Phenol formaldehyde (Bakelite). Properties: Wear resistant, rigid, moldable to precise dimensions, strong, excellent electrical properties, economical, will not support combustion. Typical uses: Electrical and electronic parts, handles, housings, insulator parts, mechanism parts, and parts that are to resist temperatures to 250°C.
Phenolic laminates. Properties: Immune to common solvents, lightweight, strong, easily machined. Typical uses: Bearings, machined parts, insulation, gears, cams, sleeves, and electrical and electronic parts.

Polycarbonate (Lexan). Properties: Virtually unbreakable, weather resistant, optically clear, lightweight, self-extinguishing, thermoformable, machinable, solvent cementable. Typical uses: High voltage insulation, impact resistant injection moldings, glazing, bulletproof’, glazing, and plumbing fittings. The strongest thermoplastic.

Polyester glass. Properties: Extremely tough, high dielectric strength, heat resistant, low water absorption, antitracking electrically, self-extinguishing, machinable. Typical uses: Insulators and bus braces, switch phase barriers, general electrical insulation, mechanical insulated push rods for switches and breakers, contact blocks, and terminal blocks.
Polyethylene. Properties: Transparent in thin sheets, water resistant. Typical uses: Bags for food storage, vapor barriers in construction, trays, rollers, gaskets, seals, and radiation shielding.

Polypropylene. Properties: Good tensile strength, low water absorp¬tion, excellent chemical resistance, stress-crack resistant, electrical properties. Typical uses: Tanks, ducts, exhaust systems, gaskets, laboratory and hospital ware, wire coating, and sporting goods.

Polystyrene. Properties: Outstanding electrical properties, excellent machinability, ease of fabrication, excellent chemical resistance, oil resistant, clarity, rigidity, hardness, dimensional stability. Typical Lighting panels, tote boxes, electronic components, door panels (refrigerators), drip pans, displays, and furniture components.

Polysulfone. Properties: Tough, rigid, high-strength, high-temperature thermoplastic, temperature range –150 to +300°F, excellent electrical characteristics, good chemical resistance, low creep and cold flow properties, capable of being autoclaved repeatedly. Typical uses: Food-processing and medical industries, electrical and electronics, appliance, automotive, aircraft, and aerospace uses.

Polyurethane. Properties: Elastomeric to rock-hard forms available, high physical characteristics, toughness, durability, broad hardness range, withstands severe use, abrasion resistant, weather resistant, radiation resistant, temperature range –80 to 250°F, resistant iii common solvents, available also in foam types. Typical uses: Replaces a host of materials that are not performing well; extremely broad range of usage; replaces rubber parts, plastic parts, and some metallic parts.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Properties: Corrosion resistant, formable, lightweight, excellent electrical properties, impact resistant, low water absorption, cementable, machinable, weldable. Typical uses: Machined parts, nuts, bolts, PVC pipe and fittings, valves, and strainers.

RTV silicone rubber. Properties: Resistant to temperature extremes 1 75 to 400°F), excellent electrical characteristics, weather resistant, good chemical resistance; FDA, USDA, and UL approved. Typiccal uses: General-purpose high-quality sealant, gasket cement, food contact surfaces, electrical insulation, bonding agent, glass tank construction, and countless other applications.
Styrofoam. Properties: Low water absorption, floats, thermal insulator, extremely lightweight. Typical uses: Insulation board for Domes and buildings, cups, containers, thermos containers, shock absorbing packaging, plates (food), and flotation logs.

Teflon (PTFE). Properties: Unexcelled chemical resistance, cryogenic service, electrical insulation, very low friction, high dielectric strength, very low dissipation factor, very high resistivity, machinability. Typical uses: Valve components, gaskets (with caution, due to cold flow), pump parts, seal rings, insulators (electrical), terminals, bearings, rollers, bushings, electrical tapes, plumbing tapes, and machined parts; bondable with special etchant preparations.
Urea-formaldehyde. Properties: Hard, strong, molds accurately, low water absorption, excellent electrical properties, ablative, economical, will not support combustion. Typical uses: Electrical and electronic parts, insulators, small parts, and housings.
Properties of Materials: General and Specific.

All manufacturers of plastic materials provide material specification sheets when so requested. Material analysis sheets likewise are sup¬plied by metal providers, forges, and foundries when so requested. The material test report is generated by one of the various materials test laboratories nationwide, but it must be purchased by the company requesting the analysis. Owing to the rise in imported materials that may or may not meet the requirements of the SAE, ASTM, AISI, ASM, and ANSI standards, material confirmation by way of laboratory analysis is necessary in many instances. Materials that do not conform to the standards applicable for a given material, as specified on the engineering drawings, pose a serious safety prob¬lem for manufacturers of industrial and consumer products and their users. When in doubt about a material’s performance, have the material analyzed at a testing laboratory. The material supplier is responsible for the specifications of the material that it sells. If you order a type 304L stainless steel per SAE or ASTM specifications, the material must conform to these specifications both chemically and mechanically.

December 5, 2009

Give Your Productivity and Edge with State of the Art PVD Coatings

Cutting Tools Chicago aka General Cutting Tools is your source for performance enhancing cutting tool coatings.  In recent years, with the introduction of new PVD coatings(ZrN, TiCN, TiAlN, AlTiN, etc.), choosing the right coating has become the key factor increasing productivity, improving tool life and reducing down time.

Here are some tips on choosing the right coating.

  1. Material: Determine which coatings are appropriate for the type of material being machined.
  2. Application: Coating performance varied dramatically for each operation.  From the coating chosen above, determine which coatings are appropriate for the type of operation being performed.
  3. Operating Conditions: The performance of each coating is directly related to the operating conditions (feed rate, cutting speed and coolant).  Below is the recommended surface footage increase over TiN coated tools for each coating.   ZrN 10%-15%  TiCN 15%-25%  TiAlN 20%-35%  AlTiN 25%-40%  The machine’s capabilities should be considered in order to determine if it is possible to achieve the required increases suggested above for the coating being selected

December 2, 2009

Special Cutting Tools

Special CNC Ground End Mill

Special CNC Ground End Mill

Chicago Cutting Tools aka General Cutting Tools is your premier source of special cutting tools.  Special cutting tools can be made to a specific cutting diameter, have a corner radius, special cutting helix, special cylindrical land, special flute shape, form relieved geometry, form ground flutes, special chamfer, special tip angle, modified shank, reduced shank, single flute, multi flute, roughing, general purpose, finishing, high speed steel (HSS), high speed cobalt (HSCO, M42), carbide tipped, and solid carbide.  We make: porting tools, end mills, milling cutters, step tools, reamers, gages, keyway cutters, indexable inserts, resharpening and reconditioning of tools also.  Seven-axis CNC tool cutter grinders insure you get exactally the same tool every time regardless of the amount of time between orders.

We make specialty cutters designed for cutting: aluminum, ferrous, non-ferrous, low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel (4140, 4150, 4340, 52100, 6150, 8620), tool steel (A2, A6, A9, A11, D2, H13, L6, M1, M2, M3, M4, M7, M35, M42, M62, P20, T4, T8, 01, 06,S5, S7), high speed steel, super high speed (Rex 20, Rex 45, Rex 54, T15, Rex 76, and Rex 121), cast iron, titanium, powdered metals (CPM 1V, CPM 3V, CPM 9V, CPM 10V, CPM 15V, A11, M4, T15), high vanadium (CPM M4, CPM Rex 54, CPM T15, CPM Rex 76, and CPM Rex 121), alloys, super alloys, nickel based super alloys, high temperature alloys (Haynes, Incoloy, Inconel, Invar, Super Invar, Mu Metal, Rene, Hastelloy, Haynes, Kovar, Multimet,  Maraging, Nickel, Waspaloy, Monel, Permendur, Hiperco, Nitronic), and Stainless Steel(414, 416, 420, 440, 440C, and 17Cr-4Ni), Brass (soft, half hard, full hard).

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